4th WAAD Int'l Conference

Education, Gender & Sustainable Development In the Age of Globalization

Abuja, Nigeria; August 3-8, 2009
About the Conference

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1st WAAD Conference–Nsukka, Nigeria

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First International Conference on Women in Africa & the African Diaspora (WAAD)
“Bridges across Activism & the Academy”
Nsukka, Nigeria July 13—18, 1992

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From the Convenor…

In July 1992, over 700 researchers, activists, policy makers, and students from all continents assembled in Nsukka—a  rural town in southeastern Nigeria—for the first international conference on “Women in Africa and the African Diaspora: Bridges across Activism and the Academy” (WAAD). Committed to building bridges across racial, gender, ethnic, class, locational, national, and disciplinary boundaries, the organizers invited researchers, activists, policy makers, and students irrespective of gender, race, ethnicity, or national origin. Because the conference was held in Africa, many scholars and activists residing and working in Africa were able to attend. The choice of a rural town was both political and necessary because it encouraged the participation of the non-academic and rural communities.

The first WAAD conference accomplished its goals and put in place forward-looking strategies for continuing its work. The networking that prevailed at Nsukka laid the foundation for the formation of NGOs—on gender and the media, and widowhood—in Africa. WAAD ’92 conference generated a ten-volume proceedings of over 200 original papers on women in Africa and the African Diaspora. Because the conference format did not impose any disciplinary boundaries on choice of presentation topics, the proceedings reflect a wide range of subjects—from development, literature, and feminist/womanist theories to health, religion and politics. Much of the original work about Africa/African women is done in Africa. The ten-volume WAAD proceedings is a rare collection of such important, original works.

WAAD ’92 also led to the formation of the Association of African Women Scholars (AAWS) which has initiated and promoted collaborative work between researchers, activists, and policy makers in Africa and those outside the continent. AAWS has lent its voice to campaigns against human rights violations in Africa. The association administers a vibrant internet discussion group on gender issues in Africa (AFWOSCHO). Besides participating in debates on global, regional, and national dimensions of issues affecting women in African and the African Diaspora, AFWOSCHO subscribers provide information to students (college and high school) who are working on such issues. Through its newsletter, AAWS encourages information dissemination and networking within African as well as between those inside and those outside the continent. AAWS has embarked on an initiative—The African Women Bibliographies: A Global Project—that will encourage and facilitate research on women of African descent. The first volume of the biennial African Women Bibliographies: A Global Project (covering works published in 1999—2001) will be published in 2001.

Obioma Nnaemeka

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Click on the following Volume numbers to view each volume:

Volume I | Volume II | Volume III | Volume IV | Volume V
Volume VI | Volume VII | Volume VIII | Volume IX | Volume X

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Volume I: Rethinking Feminisms and Power
(506 pages)

Contents


Olabisi I. Aina
African Women at the Grassroots:  The Silent Partners of the Women’s Movement
1

Femi I. Ajanaku and Nkechi Ajanaku
The Development of a Sisterhood in Memphis, Tennessee
21

Lucky O. Akaruese
Prolegomena to the Discussion on Women’s Liberation in Africa from the
Standpoint of Marxist Philosophers in Africa
37

Kimlin T. Ashing and Marva L. Lewis
Bridges and Barriers: Psychological, Political and Historical Dynamics
Important to the Nurturance of Relationships between Women of African Descent
51

Dé Bryant
Building a Power Organization:  A Network Team Approach to Grassroots Organizing
65

P. O. Chineme
The Will to Change among Igbo Women of Different Ages and Their
Perceptions of Cultural Limitation in the Society
97

Glo Chi Chukukere
An Appraisal of Feminism in the Socio-political Development of Nigeria
111

Jamiila Chip Cushnie-Mnyanga
Adjustment and Assimilation in Tanzania: A Personal Experience
131

Marie Pauline Eboh
Philosophy of Black Women’s Emancipation: A Critical Issue in African and Diaspora Cultures
145

Gertrude Fester
Closing the Gap-Activism and Academia in South Africa: Towards a Women’s Movement
163

Cynthia Hamilton
Women in Politics: Methods of Resistance and Change
185

Peter Hitchcock
The Arab Women’s Solidarity Association: The Contexts of Controversy & the Politics of Voice
199

Patricia Horn
Emancipation of Women in a Post-Apartheid South Africa
213

Clenora Hudson-Weems
Africana Womanism: A Theoretical Need and Practical Usefulness
229

Sabine Jell-Bahlsen
Female Power: Water Priestesses of the Oru-Igbo
245

Okepete R. Kanu
Women’s Organizations as Agents of Change in Nigeria
261

Deborah Kasente
The Gap between Gender Research and Activism in Uganda
273

Michelle Kemp, Caron Zlotnick and Yvonne Wells
Toward a Universal Feminism: A Conversation between European-African,
African-Caribbean and African-American Women (Workshop)
287

Angela Miles
North American Feminisms/Global Feminisms: Contradictory or Complementary?
295

Obioma Nnaemeka
Bringing African Women into the Classroom: Rethinking Pedagogy and Epistemology
317

Oriaku Nwosu
Women in Nigeria: Prescription for Empowerment
343

Catherine I. Oreh
Traditional Women Groups and Community Development in Igboland
357

Saguna Pathy
Imperialism, Third World, and Women: A Note
369

Ros Posel
“Alien Researchers?” White Feminists Writing about the Past of Black Women
391

Pamela Ryan
Singing in Prison: Women Writers and the Discourse of Resistance
405

Wania Sant’anna
The Discourse about Brazilian Identity: A Gender and Race Perspective
425

‘Zulu Sofola
Feminism and African Womanhood
441

Toyin Solanke
Women in BP Uk: Networking for Change
461

Anthonia O. Uzuegbunam
Feminism in Decision Making: The Case of Igbo Women in Old Anambra State, Nigeria
469

Julia C. Wells
Maternal Politics in Organizing Black South African Women: Historical
Lessons for the Present
479

Betty Welz
White Women in Umkhonto We Sizwe, the ANC Army of Liberation:
“Traitors” to Race, Class, and Gender
495

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Volume II: Health, Human Rights, and the Environment
(389 pages)

Contents


Rosalie Ackerman, Martha Banks, and Carolyn Corbett
When Women Deal with Head Injuries
5

Uche Azikiwe, Margot  Kurtz, and J. Kurtz
Urban, Married Nigerian Women’s Perceptions of Exposure to
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
23

G. O. Agusiegbe
Perception of Female Academics Regarding Mental Health Hazards
in Their Work Environment:  A Pilot Study
35

Margaret Aguwa
Breast Self-Examination for Black Women:  A Touch for Life (Workshop)
47

Dorothy Akunyili
The Use of Traditional Medicine for the Provision of Health Care to
Child-Bearing Nigerian Women
61

Uche Amazigo and Florence Asobie
Status of Women’s Health in Africa (Workshop)
67

Wendy Annecke
Fuel for Thought
81

Evelyn L. Barbee and Marilyn Little
Social Class and the Health of African-American Women
101

Mary Dupain
The Need for Family and Children’s Mental Health Services Programs (Workshop)
117

Vicki Lynn Ferguson
Refugee Women and AIDS: Dual Crises in Eastern Africa
131

Susan Frazier-Kouassi
Psychological Well-Being of African-American Single Parent Women
151

Lumka Funani
Integration of African and Western Medicine: Focus on Traditional Circumcision
169

Regine George-Bowden
Teen Pregnancy as a Social Problem
179

Gladys Gwashure
MUSASA on Rape and Violence against Women in Uganda
189

Nadra Hashim
The Politics of Ritual Infibulation
201

J. N. Igbokidi
Impediments to Family Planning in Nigeria
209

S. A. Igwe
Ensuring Better Health for Rural Women in Nigeria
225

Hlengiwe Mkhize
Mental Health of Women Political Repatriates
237

Prisca Molotsi
Population, Environment, and the African Woman
255

Salina Mumbengegwi
How Women’s Action Group (WAG) Contributes to Women’s Rights in Zimbabwe: Issues in Women’s Reproductive Rights
265

O. C. Nwana
Conditions that Pervade Pregnancy and Child Birth in Africa:  Problems and Solutions
269

Grace Chibiko Offorma
Nigerian Women’s Perception of Family Planning Practices
279

Olanike Ogedengbe
Women and Health in Nigeria: Need for Greater Integration of Women into
All Levels of the Health Care Delivery System
291

A. E. Onwurah
Women’s Health Needs in Africa
305

Ann Onyekweodiri
Women and Health in the Rural African Community: The Igbo-Eze Case
313

Yomi Oruwari
Women and Oil Exploration: Survival in the Changing Land Use
Case Studies from Two Ecological Zones in Rivers State, Nigeria
325

Kari Points and Raphael Tsivama
Violence against Women in Zimbabwe
339

M. O. Raimi
Working Mothers and Fertility in South-West Nigeria: The Example of a
City in Oyo State
353

Umgumaa Mohammed Abdel Regal
The Role of the Sudan Family Planning Association (SFPA) in Family
Planning Services
361

Elisha P. Renne
A Yoruba Woman’s Fertility Strategy: The Practice and Perception
of Abortion by Ekiti Women
371

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Volume III: Art, Literature and Film
(502 pages)

Contents


Chukwuma Azuonye
Power, Marginality, and Woman Being in Igbo Oral Narratives
5

Kofi  E. Agovi
Gender, Selfhood, and Social Change in Nzema Ayabomo Maiden Songs
41

Ayana Abdullah
A Study of Bessie Head’s A Question of Power
69

Rose Acholonu
Love and the Feminist Utopia in the African Novel
79

Ify Achufusi
African Female Writers Revisited: An Analysis of Form and Technique
in Bessie Head’s an Grace Ogot’s Fiction
95

Chinedu Agbasiere-Awugosi
The African Woman in Search of Identity and Self Realization: The Examples
of Nuruddin Farah, Buchi Emecheta, Flora Nwapa and Ngugi Wa Thiong’o
113

Julie Agbasiere
Economic Independence in the African Novel
121

Alma Jean Billingslea-Brown
Yearning for the Homeland: “The Return to the Source” in Contemporary
African-American Women’s Fiction and Visual Art
135

Ingrid Bjorkman
Orature and Modern Women’s Literature—Discourses of Women’s
Liberation or Oppression
151

Brenda Bosman
Head Tells Stories: A Scandalous Emancipatory Strategy
167

Debra Boyd-Buggs
Black, Green and Red: Negritude and Militancy in the Poetry of African and African American Female Poets
183

Patricia Fahamisha Brown
Black World Poetry: Toward Definition and Poetics
207

Ipshita Chanda
In Search of Sweetness: Ideas of the Diaspora in the Works of Ama Ata Aidoo
229

Margaret Daymond
Seizing Meaning—The Autobiographies of Ellen Kuzwayo and Emma Mashinini
253

Frieda Ekotto
Cleopatra Displaced: Power Dynamics in Francophone Theater
271

Uzoma Esonwanne
Traveling with Sissie: Literature and Postcoloniality
285

T. I. Fadero
The African Woman in Reality and Fiction: An Analogy Between the
Non-fictional African Woman and the Fictional One in Wedlock of the Gods
and The Dilemma of a Ghost
295

Susan Gardner
White Sugar, Coke, and Feminism: How Not to Teach “Third World”
Women’s Writing
307

Gloria Gibson-Hudson
Culture Connections: Pan African Gender-based Consciousness in the Films of Black Women
323

LaVerne Gyant and Cathy Lyons
In Search of Our Own Self Discovery: Their Eyes Were Watching God
345

Jennifer Henton
Exiles: The Female Body of Black African Women Writers
359

Melinda Hernandez
The Art of Things Falling Apart: Performative in the Faceof Vertigo—
Bessie Head’s A Question of Power
373

Anthony Hurley
The African Pilgrimage: The Response of a French Caribbean Woman
Poet to the Problematic of Cultural Identity
385

Dunmade Ibukun
Patterns of the Status of Women in African Novels
401

Dolores Person Lairet
Cajou par Michèle Lacrosil: Reflects Dysmorphophobiques “au pays des merveilles”
413

Renée Larrier
Roots Never Die: Women’s Solidarity throughout the African Diaspora in
Michèle Maillet’s L’Etoile noire
421
Geta LeSeur
The Monster-Machine and the White Mausoleum: Paule Marshall’s
Metaphors for Western Materialism
429

Christine Loflin
Mother Africa: African Women and Land in African Literature
445

Isabella Matsikidze
Conceptualizing South Africa, Conceptualizing Gender:
Consciousness-Invasion in Bessie Head’s A Question of Power
479

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Volume IV: Art, Literature and Film
(396 pages)

Contents


Chimalum Nwankwo
Liteature, Politics, and Dilemma of Respresentation
5

Abdul Rasheed Na’Allah
Women and Ilorin Traditional Oral Poetry
21

Lorna McDaniel
The Dance Ring in Black Women’s Writings: Paule Marshall’s Praisesong
for the Widow
35

Joseph Mclaren
Female Images in the Novels of Ngugi wa Thiong’o
47

Tola Mosadomi
Images of the African Woman in Francophone Literature
63

G. N. Ofor
Female Radicalism: A Response to Patriarchy
83

Bayo Ogunjimi
Nigerian Women and Popculture: A Marxist-Feminist Discourse
95

Tanure Ojaide
The Future of African Women’s Writing
107

Femi Ojo-Ade
From Social Work to Politics: The Autobiographies of Ellen Kuzwayo
and Winnie Mandela
117

J. O. Ojoade and A. B. Ojoade
The Old Woman in African Proverbs
139

Grace Eche Okereke
Education as a Colonial Heritage and the Nigerian Woman in Literature
157

Maria Olaussen
Bessie Head and the Limits of Individualism
169

Ayò Òpéfèyítìmí
Compound of Secrecy: Women in Yourba Primeval Incantation
187

Chioma Opara
Emerging from the Patriarchal Confines: The Epistolary Intercourse in Mariama
Bâ’s Une si longue lettre and Sembène Ousmane’s Lettres de France
197

Deborah Plant
Mythic Dimensions in the Novels of Mariama Bâ
209

Jacquelin C. Peters
Ties That Bind: A Diasporic View of African Hair Styles
219

Joyce Hope Scott
Tribal Tales and New Mythologies: Ancestral Links in African-American
Women’s Fiction
235

William Slaymaker
Heroines of Uhuru:  Ngugi’s Feminine Stereotypes
251

Jane Splawn
New World Consciousness among Women in Africa and the African Diaspora
263

Ada Udechukwu
Uli:  Different Hands, Different Times
281

N. F. Ukadike
Feminine Voices in Black African Cinema
291

Marie Umeh
The Noise of Myths and the Reality of Motherhood-Fixation in Emecheta
305

Obianuju P. Umeji
Igbo Women as Makers of Civilization
311

Annemarie Van Niekerk
Feminist Aesthetics:  Aspects of Race, Class and Gender in the Constitution of
South African Short Fiction by Women
329

Donda C. West
How the Works of African American Women Writers Mean: An Examination
of Classical Rhetorical Structures in Their Writings
347

Wendy Woodward
The Powers of Discourse:  The Identity of Subaltern Women under Colonial
Law in Nervous Conditions and Daughters of The Twilight
359

Bridget U.Ubochi
Knowledge and Civilization
373

Dorothy Thompson
Awareness of Cultural Identity and Its Influence on the Choice of
Contemporary Dress among African Women in Diaspora:  The Case of the
African-American Woman
387

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Volume V: Agriculture and Rural Development
(389 pages)

Contents


Paivi Elovainio
Control over One’s Life: Collectivity and Gender-Role in Rural Egypt
1

Nurelhuda Mohamed Abubakar
The Role of Women in Agriculture Sector (Rainfed Agriculture Subsector) in Sudan
23

V. O. Ajayi
Harnessing Grassroots Resources:  A Case Study of the Better Life Programm
in Oyo State of Nigeria
35

Bolanle Akande
The Role of Women in Rural Development
55

Elizabeth U. Anyakoha
Rural Women in Nigeria and Community Mobilization: Problems, Impact, and
Enhancement Strategies
67

J. A. Ayoade and G. B. Ayoola
Role of Women in Livestock Enterprises in Nigeria: A Case Study of
Rural Tiv and Idoma Communities of Benue State
81

Zeinab Diallo
Femmes et Activités Féminines en Guinée: Expérience du Project
PNUD/FAO/GUI/86/004 “Développement Rural du Fouta-Djallon”
93

A. E. O. Esu and M.E. Essang
Women, Activism, and National Development in Nigeria
109

S. A. Igwe
Development Investment in Women
121

Peter U. Iniodu
Women in Agriculture and Rural Development in Eastern Nigeria
129

Ruth P. Kisubika
Women Issues in Rural Development in Uganda
143

A. E. Kwazu
Organizing Women for Rural Development: The Nigerian Situation
153

Ephraim N. Madu
Women in Nigerian Agriculture: A Study of the Organization, Framework,
and Impact of the Anambra State Better Life Programme in Cassava
and Rice Production
161

Adijat T. Malik
Financial Opportunities for Rural Women in the 1990s: A Nigerian Perspective
179

Georgina Ngeri Nwagha
Dearth of Information: An Invisible Barrier to the Development of Rural
Women in Nigeria
189

Chukwudi Obinne and Ijeoma Kalu
Participation of Nigerian Rural Women in Agricultural Cooperatives:
Problems and Prospects
199

Marshall Odii
Rural Women and Access to Farmland in Imo State, Nigerian: Implications for Agricultural Growth and Development
211

Joy U. Ogbazi
Towards an Effective Integration of Women in National Development
Planning in Nigeria
223

E.A. Ogbonna-Ohuche and C. N. Ifionu
Pidgin Language: An Effective Instrument of Communication in the Better Life
Programme for the Rural Women (BLP)
237

Grace Eche Okereke
Equipping the Rural Woman toward Rural Development in Nigeria
249

Patience C.Onokala
Better Life Projects and Increased Accessibility from DFRRI Roads in Enugu State, Nigeria (1986-1990)
263

Cecilia Adaku Onyeka
The Dilemma of Women Cooperative Societies in Nigeria
283

Nelly Raditloaneng
Women and Development in Botswana
293

Doris Rucks
Issues and Concerns of Women in Developing Countries: Botswana and Zimbabwe
315

F. M. Ugwu
The Acceptance of Locally Formulated Weaning Food by Nigerian Women
325

Emma E. Umebali and Ephraim N. Madu
Development Planning for Rural Women in Nigeria: Policy Implications
337

Emmanuel E. Umebali  and J. Orebiyi
Women “Isusu” Clubs in Mobilizing Rural Savings:A Case of Umuahia Area of Abia State
343

Margaret Azuka Umeagudosu
Women of the Church and Rural Development: The Nigerian Experience
353

Emmanuel E. Umebali
Participation of Women Cooperatives in Rural Development: Study of Nnewi Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria
367

Amelia Zambeze
The Situation of Rural Women in Mozambique
377

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Volume VI: The Academy, Education, and the Media
(404 pages)

Contents


William Addai
Case Study of Rural Women, Literacy, and Development in Ghana
5

Mina Victor Akan
Energizing the Nigerian Woman for the Actualization of Her Managerial
Potentials in Education
17

Ranjan Amin
Experiments in Working with Women in Urban and Rural Settings
47

Exie B. Ashburn
Creating a Pathway to College for Students of African Descent: Elements
of a Plan that Works
63

Eva Biswaro
A Case Study of the Post Literacy Curriculum to Enhance the Relevancy to
and Impact on Women in Tanzania
73

U. G. Emetarom
Nigerian Women and Academic Leadership
85

Akon Esu and Mary Essang
Women’s Activism and National Development in Nigeria
97

Jessica Ezekiel-Hart
Women, Education, and Development in Nigeria
109

Jo Ellen Fair
The Sign of “Woman” and the Meaning of Mourning in American News
Portrayals of Violence in South Africa
125

Joyce T. Forbes
A West Indian Voice on Systemic Discrimination in Higher Education:
Unweaving the Web of Teaching, Learning, and Research
141

Patricia A. Harvey-Holmes
The Contribution of the African State in the Formulation of Principles
and Laws Governing the Use of Direct Satellite Broadcasting
153

Amelia N. O. Jaja
Literacy Education, Women, and Development in Nigeria
167

Sadye L. Logan
Implementing Women’s Resource Centers in Developing Countries:
A Proposed Model
185

Clara Menakaya
Bringing Reality into Childhood Education
201

Clara Menakaya
The Implications of the Nigerian 6-3-3-4 System of Education
211

Clara Menakaya
The Language of the Arts in the Classroom
223

Clara Menakaya
The Role of Play in the Education of the child
237

Alice N. Ndu
Education of Women in Nigeria: The Challenge for the Educated Elite
249

Mari Nelson
Bridging the Academy: Africa to America
261

Nwadiuto Nkpa
Uptake of Science and Technology Courses by Girls
269

J. N. Ogwo
Experiences of Nigerian Women in Science Education
283

Joy R. Okeke
Female Teachers’ Perception of Integration Program for Handicapped
Children in Nigerian Primary Schools
293

Ifeoma Okoye
Breaking the Barriers: What Role for Women in Language and Communication?
307

Ada C. Okwuosa
Family Background, Marriage, and Higher Education among Igbo Women:
A Comparative Study of the Phenomena of Early and Delayed Tertiary
Education for Nigerian Women
317

Olu Adebisi Aboderin
Role of Language in the Acculturation of Rural Women
333

Seko Hilda Phiri
Women and Adult Education in Africa
345

Esther D. Rothblum and Ellen Cole
Women and Publishing: A Feminist Perspective
361

Gwen Schulman and Sandra Daley
Colonial Education for Girls in AOF: A Project for Gender-Reconstruction, Problematique and Methodology
367

Mediline Tador
Nigerian Women in the Media: Challenges and Prospects
379

Margaret A. Umeagudosu
Biblical Inspiration for Indigenous Technology: Whither Nigerian Women?
391

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Volume VII: Labor and the Economy

(324 pages)

Contents


Martha E. Banks and Rosalie J. Ackerman
African American Employment in the Computer Fields: The Discouraging Disparities
5

Gracia Clark
Market Women, Food Security, and Structural Adjustment
19

Yolanda L. Comedy
A Comparative Assessment of Policy Formulation and Implementation
of the Land Redistribution and Structural Adjustment Policies of Zimbabwe
since Independence: Implications for Women
31

Sammie T. Cox and Joyce Judson
Managing It All—Career, Home, Family and Personal Life: A Time
Management Seminar (Workshop)
47

Elizabeth Delport
Women as Domestic Workers in Southern Africa
63

Alice Hashim
Towards the Effective Participation of Women in the Economic
Development of Somalia
75

Augustine A. Ikein
The Socio-economic Impact of European Reforms on Gender and
Development in Africa
93

Nwogo C. Ikezue
Women in Management in Nigeria
105

Amélie Iroko
Role Socio-économique des Amazones au Danxome (des Origines à 1892)
113

Wilma L. Kirchhofer
Nutribusiness: A Model for Addressing Malnutrition through Small Food Businesses
129

Reithumetse O. Mabokela
South African Women in the Labor Force
137

Viola Mattavous-Bly
Women Entrepreneurs in Africa and the Diaspora
149

Mary Mugyenyi
The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on Ugandan Rural
Women in the 1980s: Prospects for Empowerment in the New Decade
161

Kathleen O’ Mara
The Ideology of Slavery, Race, and Gender among the Precolonial
Tuareg Kel Ahir
175

Yemi Onibokun
Division of Labor in Child Care: A Cross Cultural Analysis
187

Chiaka A. Obi
Socio-psychological Skills that Influence the Success of Women in Management
199

Veronica I. Okeke
Women’s Employment and Family Stability: A Survey of Working Mothers in Lagos, Nigeria.
213

C. U. Okoye
Women and Agribusiness in Nigeria: An Integrative Analysis of Gender in Development
233

Mary J. Osirim
Challenges in the Quest for Empowerment: Women in Small and Informal
Sector Activities in Nigeria and Zimbabwe
253

Rama Roy
Employment of Women in Africa: A Sociological Study
279

Fola Thomas
Women in Business and Management
295

Caron Zlotnick
The Courage to Survive: Violence in the Lives of Domestic Workers in
South Africa
313

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Volume VIII: Culture and Society

(360 pages)

Contents


Ihuoma F. Abaraonye
Gender Relations in Ibibio Traditional Organizations
5

Fatima L. Adamu
Purdah System and Structural Adjustment Program: A Study in Modes
of Coping by Purdah Women in a Period of Economic Crisis
17

‘Biodun Adediran
Women, Rituals, and Politics of Precolonial Yorubaland
33

Eunice E. Adiele
Widowhood Practices in Igboland: An Examination of the Role of
Christian Churches
49

A. E. Afigbo
Widowhood Practices in Africa: A Preliminary Survey and Analysis
63

Funso Afolayan
Women, Politics, and Society in Precolonial Igbomina
95

Biko Agozino
The Victimization of African Women as Punishment
107

Samira Amin Ahmed
Women Traditional Practices as Power Mechanisms: A Study of Sudanese Women in Diaspora
125

Olayemi Akinwumi
The Place of Women in Borgawa Society
147

Sylvia Ada Akpala
Eradication of Discriminatory Laws and Regulations Affecting Women in the Nigerian Civil Service
161

Olu Emmanuel Alana
Women Leadership in the Cherubim and Seraphim Church: A Liberation of Womanhood from Paul’s Fetters of Conservatism
177

Eberechukwu Maria Anosike
Trends in the Political Development of the Nigerian Woman
189

Uche Azikiwe
Widowhood Practices in Nigeria: Case of Afikpo Community
205

Gloria J. Braxton
Political Leadership in Liberia: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
on the Role of Female Chiefs and Tribal Governors
217

Norma J. Burgess
Work and Family Life: Sociohistoricism, Social Support Networks,
and African-American Women
233

J. O. Charles
Women Migration, Intercultural Marriage, and Regional Development:
Problems and Prospects of Women Based Communication and Development
Strategy in Africa
245

Brenda K-J. Crawley
21st Century Policy Issues of Older African-American Women:
Challenges and Choices
261

Bamidele Agbasegbe Demerson
The Sisterhood of our Lady of Good Death: The African Face of a Roman
Catholic Sodality in Northeastern Brazil
277

Violeta I. Ekpo
Colonialism and Change in the Social Status of Women in Southeastern Nigeria: The Ibibio Women Experience
285

Donna K. Flynn
Multiple Gender Ideologies and an Academic Means of Empowerment:
A Yoruba Example
299

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Volume IX: Religion and Society

(325 pages)

Contents


Edith E. Freeman
African-American Women and the Concept of Cultural Competence
5

Tina Gaskin-Maynard
Africa-consciousness and Psychological Impact of African-American Women on Contemporary Women
19

Shirley M. Geiger
Low-Income Black Single Mothers and Federal Housing Policy in the United
States: The Influences of Ideology, Gender, Poverty, and Race
31

C. N. Ifionu and E. A. Ogbonna-Ohuche
Dehumanizing Women through Language: The African Experience
49

Chijioke Iheme
The Issue of “Weaker Sex” as a Barrier against Women’s Development
61

Lisa A. Lindsay
Brazilian Women in Lagos, 1879-1882
73

Protus O. Kemdirim
The Traditional and Christian Background to Women’s Participation in Evangelization: Implications for Church Growth in Africa Today
85

Esilokun Kinni-Olusanyin
The Prominence of Women in Yoruba and Fon Religions and Associated Arts
101

Maureen Malowany
Representations of African Women in the Historical Literature of Nigeria (1890-1990)
113

Nosuma Ndaba
How Zulu Culture Subjugates Women
129

Bene Nnabugwu-Otesanya
The Changing Role of Women: Its Implications for the Society
141

E. Nzewi
Women Emancipation and Trends in Female Criminality in Nigeria
149

Marcellina U. Offoha
The Nigerian Family in the United States
161

Ngozi Ojiakor
African Women in Search of Identity: An Historical Perspective
177

Nnenna Oke
Women and the Process of Self Actualization
189

Christiana E. E. Okojie
Widowhood Practices and Sociocultural Restrictions on Women’s
Behavior in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria
199

David O. Olayiwola
Women as Christian Revivalists in the Contemporary Nigerian Context
219

Mikelle S. Omari-Obayemi
An Indigenous Anatomy of Power and Art: A New Look at Yoruba
Women in Society and Religion
235

Nneka Osakwe
Language: The Bridge for Self-Actualization of the African Woman
247

Peggy D. Siyakwazi
Women’s Contributions to Religion
261

Pat Williams
Religious Fundamentalism and Women’s Political Behavior in Nigeria
273

Oyeronke Olajubu
Twenty First Century African Christianity: An Era of Women’s Liberation in African Ecclesiology
291

Daphne Williams Ntiri
Experimenting with Family Life Centers in Africa’s Development:
A Case Study of Rural Women in Somalia, East Africa
301

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Volume X: Addresses, Keynote Speeches, and Reflections

(176 pages)

Contents


Sponsors
1

Organizers
2

Acknowledgments
6

Dorothy Nwodo
Opening Address
8

Njideka Ezeife
Goodwill Message
11

Chimere Ikoku
Welcome Address
13

Obioma Nnaemeka
This Women’s Studies Business: Beyond Politics and History (Thoughts on the First International Conference on Women in Africa and the African Diaspora)
16

Ama Ata Aidoo
Keynote: The African Woman Today
39

P. L. Malhotra
Challenges for the Inclusion of Gender Issues in Social Science Research and Planning
53

Flora Nwapa
Keynote: The African Woman Today
57

Martin O. Ijere
Keynote: The Imperative of Women’s Leadership in the Socioeconomic
Life of a Nation
69

Abstracts (Contents)
80

Proceedings (Contents)
99

Communiqué
135

Statement from the South African Delegation
139

Reflections (Participants)
141

Kathleen Geathers
WAAD Song
168

Tola Mosadomi
Poems
169

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